Department of Labor Issues Aggressive Memo Going After "Misclassified" Independent Contractors -- Administrator's Interpretation No. 2015-1
On July 15, 2015, the Wage and Hour Division of the federal Department of Labor issued an "Administrator's Interpretation" that takes a very aggressive stance against the use of independent contractor status in the workplace. The interpretation is significant as courts are directed to give deference to the DOL's interpretation of the law to the extent it is generally consistent with the FLSA and its implementing regulations.
In particular the memo notes that: "The FLSA’s definition of employ as 'to suffer or permit to work' and the later-developed 'economic realities' test provide a broader scope of employment than the common law control test." Thus,
In order to make the determination whether a worker is an employee or an independent contractor under the FLSA, courts use the multi-factorial “economic realities” test, which focuses on whether the worker is economically dependent on the employer or in business for him or herself. A worker who is economically dependent on an employer is suffered or permitted to work by the employer. Thus, applying the economic realities test in view of the expansive definition of “employ” under the Act, most workers are employees under the FLSA.
In applying the economic realities factors, courts have described independent contractors as those workers with economic independence who are operating a business of their own. On the other hand, workers who are economically dependent on the employer, regardless of skill level, are employees covered by the FLSA.
The memo goes on to opines that:
The “control” factor, for example, should not be given undue weight. The factors should be considered in totality to determine whether a worker is economically dependent on the employer, and thus an employee. The factors should not be applied as a checklist, but rather the outcome must be determined by a qualitative rather than a quantitative analysis.The application of the economic realities factors is guided by the overarching principle that the FLSA should be liberally construed to provide broad coverage for workers, as evidenced by the Act’s defining “employ” as “to suffer or permit to work.”
The DOL thus seems to advocate an alternative test under which an entity is liable for the wages of any worker whose compensation ultimately derives from doing work for that entity.
One potential flaw in the Administrator's legal analysis however is that it selectively relies on tests applicable to different issues. For example, an employee of one company may simultaneously be a "joint employee" of another company based on the "economic realities" of the relationship between the two companies. Likewise, a company is said to have "suffered or permitted" unrecorded work by one of its current employees if it "knew or should have known" that the work was performed. In both cases, however, there is no dispute that the worker was an "employee" to begin with.
It thus remains to be seen if courts will accept the DOL's invitation to apply the "economic realities" and "suffer or permit" formulas as the new litmus test for independent contractor status as well.