California Labor and Employment Defense Blog

Ninth Circuit Clarifies When Travel and Commuting Time Must be Paid -- Rutti v. LoJack

In Rutti v. LoJack, the Ninth Circuit examined the issue of which employee activities must be counted as "hours worked" and which may be disregarded as non-compensable.  In doing so, it touched upon most of the important issues raised in so-called "off-the-clock" cases.  It also applied these rules under both the FLSA and California Labor Code (where there is currently a dearth of authority on the subject). 

As a result, Rutti it is an important case for both employers and plaintiffs that warrants several distinct posts.  This entry focuses on the Ninth Circuit's ruling on commuting time.

In that regard, Rutti reemphasized the familiar rule that commuting time (i.e., travel time from home to the first place of employment for the day) need not be paid under the FLSA or California Labor Code. 

Under federal law, the 1996 Employee Commuting Flexibility Act (“ECFA”), 29 U.S.C. Sec. 254(a)(a)(2), generally excludes "traveling to and from the actual place or performance of the principal activity or activities which such employee is employed to perform."

Under California law, Labor Code section 510(b), likewise provides that "[t]ime spent commuting to and from the first place at which an employee's presence is required by the employer shall not be considered part of the day's work." 

Rutti held that this commuting rule applies even where the employee is required to use a company vehicle and is restricted from making unauthorized stops or engaging in personal business. 

Rutti did allow that an employee's travel time could become compensable if he were  required to perform any "additional legally cognizable work" during his commute.  The Court gave no specific examples of such work.  However, making work related cell phone calls or entering data in an on-board  computer system would seem to be likely real-world examples of such activities that would have to be paid even if they are done during otherwise non-compensable commute time. 

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